Climbing is divided into more activities and styles each of them with its own particular techniques, tools and equipment required and environments (indoor or outdoor climbing).
TopRope term refers that the climber uses fixed rope on the top of the route and provides the best safety for the climber. The rope runs from the belayer at the bottom of the route through the anchor on the top of the route and back down to the climber. This is often used by beginners or when the route can not be lead climbed and commonly used while climbing indoors.
Here the lead climber is the one that climbs first and as he goes up he puts the rope through the quickdraws. The rope is tied to his harness and he drags it with him all the way up the route. While the leader is climbing the second climber belays from below and if the leader falls he will catch him with the belaying tool. For example if the leader falls 5 meters above the last piece of protection he will actually fall 10 meters before he hangs on the last quickdraw. When the leader gets on the top he makes an anchor so the second climber will climb top rope.
Free climbing means when the climber won’t pull on the protection and it will be only used only as a back-up if the leader falls, not to aid him to climb the route.
Free Solo Climbing
It is the most pure form of climbing because it does not require any other equipment use except of climbing shoes. If the climber falls it will cause death or very serious injuries. It is practiced by very small percentage of climbers and while free solo climbing they climb routes that are below theirs limitations.
Aid climbing is the opposite of free climbing. This style of climbing uses ladders and other equipment so the climber can pull up when he can’t pass some detail of the route. It is technical style and it is commonly used while climbing big walls.
Trad climbing is when the leader places all of the protection (camming tools for example) by himself which requires great experience, knowledge and technique. It is all required so it can be done safely. There are no any bolts on the route that is climbed and the second climber should take off all the protection that the leader already set.
In this type of climbing routes are already set with bolts and it is considered to be more safer than the trad climbing.
It refers to climbing short difficult routes and solving problems on bolders or small rocks without using of the rope.
It is climbing on ice. The ropes and protection system are similar to those used for rock climbing. It requires using more equipment from warmer specialized clothes to mountain ice climbing boots, axes and crampons.